cents, while a free white was assessed at a dollar or more, and a free African American at 3 or more. Hayes appointed David. President Grant was not running for re-election and seemed to be losing interest in the what are the components of an essay South. At the same time, that whites looked for a system of labor and the Black Codes to bind blacks to the land, as slavery had, freed people coveted land of their own and struggled to be masters of their own time and labor. They self-consciously defended their own actions within the framework of an Anglo-American discourse of resistance against tyrannical government, and they broadly succeeded in convincing many fellow white citizens says Steedman. The direct costs to the Confederacy in human capital, government expenditures, and physical destruction from the war totaled.3 billion. A to Z of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Some students may fixate on northern white hypocrisy; many white Republicans pressured southern voters to pass the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments even while they opposed its passage in the North. The number of people who lived in the destroyed towns represented just over 1 of the Confederacy's combined urban and rural populations. Interpretations of American History Vol.
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Harry Williams (who was a sharp critic of the Dunning school) notes, the Dunningites portrayed the era in stark terms: Reconstruction was a battle between two extremes: the Democrats, as the group which included the vast majority of the whites, standing for decent government and. The disproportionate numbers of black to white fatalities and documentation of brutalized bodies are why contemporary historians call it the Colfax Massacre rather than the Colfax Riot, as it was known locally. 169 Nevertheless, thousands of miles of lines were built as the Southern system expanded from 11,000 miles (17,700 km) in 1870 to 29,000 miles (46,700 km) in 1890. The badly organized Democratic party also supported Greeley. The conservatives shifted their focus away from race to taxes. If that were the case, then presumably the southern states, and the definition of citizenship that prevailed in them before the Civil War, would be restored. Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield. The project to make voters out of black men was not so much for their social elevation as for the further punishment of the Southern white peoplefor the capture of offices for Radical scamps and the entrenchment of the Radical party in power for. During Reconstruction, the state legislature mobilized to provide for public need more than had previous governments: establishing public schools and investing in infrastructure, as well as charitable institutions such as hospitals and asylums. Lincoln was assassinated before he could appoint a commissioner of the Bureau.
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